A Simplified Understanding of the Universe that
Presens New Paradigms for Space, Matter,
Time, Gravity, Light, and Consciousness.

There are two ways the information on the preceding pages can be used to explain gravity. As mentioned on pages 12 and 13, once enough space blocks and string particles had been manifested to fill the known universe, they would continue to expand with each new time-cell, or “now” moment, but it would not be necessary for them to divide. Although, as observers in an expanding physicality, we would have no perception of expanding, we would see the effects of such a phenomenon. With everything increasing in size, each string would be expanding toward others as the others are expanding towards it. As perceived in space-time, a collection of strings would have a tendency to hold together. The components of the nucleus of an atom would not drift apart. An object on the surface of a planet would have the tendency to remain there. Gravity would be the result of an action, not the cause of an action. Figures C and D show two adjacent objects expanding through five time segments. Figure C shows the object on the right seemingly being pushed to the right by the expansion of the object on the left. In Figure D, it appears the object on the left is being pushed to the left by the object to the right.

At any given segment of time both objects remain static with respect to each other. It is when the dimension of time is added that each of the objects expand into a portion of the space previously occupied by the other. Absolute space-time allows for the apparent interaction of the objects.

As another way of explaining gravity, we may visualize the fabric of space being a three-dimensional grid of M-length (Plank length after Big Bang) size increments and each grid line delineating a space-block. Or, we may visualize the fabric of space as a membrane surrounding each bulging space block as it expands.

The space-blocks, expanding with each successive time segment, exert a pushing force on adjacent blocks. Some strings encapsulate a volume of space. The encapsulated volume formulates the mass of the string particle. Subtracting that volume from the space-block reduces the pushing force of the block. The more mass in an area, the less pushing force in that area. The surrounding areas containing less or no mass will push that space and anything entering it toward the massive areas. This would work like high and low pressure areas in our atmosphere. The results would have the same appearance of warping space as stated in Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Any particle or wave entering a low-mass volume in an area of space that is near a massive volume area of space would be pushed toward the area containing more mass. This is another example of gravity as an effect of an action rather than a cause of an action and as a pushing force rather than a pulling force.

There may be no need for the illusive particle called a graviton, the assumed messenger particle for the gravitational force. Perhaps that is why they have never been found. Gravitons are not required in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, when masses fall into each other due to the fabric of space being warped. The high and low space pressure areas described above have no need for gravitons either. The necessity for gluons, the assumed particles of the strong force, could also be eliminated. Although there is assumed evidence of their existence, there is no direct evidence.

According to recent theories, the universe is expanding at an increasing rate. To be more specific, galaxies are expanding away from each other at an increasing rate while it appears that the galaxies themselves are maintaining a consistent size. This is a demonstration of the low-mass areas between galaxies having a higher expansion pressure than the high-mass areas of galaxies.

The explanation written above of the expansion of the fabric of space works the same from sub-atomic particles to galaxies. It eliminates the need for unproven speculative particles such as gluons and gravitons.